Quantitative analysis of melanin content in a three-dimensional melanoma cell culture (2024)

2D monolayer melanocyte culture and the effect of α-MSH treatment on melanocytes

Before exploring the melanin production by melanocytes in a 3D culture, we investigated the melanogenesis characteristics of our cell lines in a conventional 2D monolayer culture. B16 cells are melanoma cell lines derived from C57BL/6 mice22, which produce melanin and display metastatic behaviors. Thus, B16 cells are widely used to study melanogenesis and depigmentation23, tumor metastasis24, and for cytotoxicity measurements of various substances in skin models25. In a 2D culture, B16 cells gradually lose their ability to synthesize melanin as subculture continues26,27. The cells should therefore be pigmented in advance to be used for depigmentation studies; alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH) is one of the most commonly employed reagents for pigmentation. It activates adenylate cyclase to escalate the level of cyclic adenosine monophosphate inside of the melanocytes, thereby promoting melanocyte growth and inducing melanogenesis28,29. The nonessential amino acid L-tyrosine contained in most cell culture media may stimulate melanogenesis in a hormone-like manner30; however, this stimulation by L-tyrosine is insignificant compared to that by α-MSH.

With reference to values from previous studies, commonly used B16 cell lines B16F10 and B16F1 were treated with α-MSH ranging from 10 to 50 nM. Upon α-MSH treatment, the cellular shape changed dendritically and the color of the cell pellet, which initially appeared white to gray, turned brown to black, indicating melanin synthesis (Fig.1A). Such dendritic extensions of melanocytes are known to be essential for the transfer of melanosomes from melanocytes to surrounding keratinocytes31,32. The treatment of α-MSH significantly inhibited cellular proliferation, and the amount of melanin did not increase by increasing α-MSH concentration (Fig.S1, Supplemental Information). We then performed the same experiment using a lower range of α-MSH concentrations, from 0.001 to 10 nM. In this range, both intra- and extracellular melanin increased in a dose-dependent manner in both B16F10 and B16F1 cells (Fig.1B,C). In the case of B16F1 cells, as low as 0.01 nM of α-MSH induced a noticeable level of melanin synthesis. The half maximal effective concentration (EC50) of α-MSH for both cell lines was calculated in the range of 100 to 400 pM. Siegrist et al. also reported that B16F10 cells showed dose-dependent increase of extracellular melanin when they were treated with α-MSH in a concentration range of 0.001 to 1 nM, with an α-MSH EC50 of 27 pM21. The inhibition of cell growth by α-MSH was also observed in a dose-dependent manner (Fig.1D). High concentrations of α-MSH (50–100 nM) might be preferred in depigmenting studies to demonstrate a dramatic effect of candidate substances without considering other effects such as proliferation inhibition.

Effect of α-MSH treatment on melanin synthesis and proliferation of 2D cultured melanocytes. α-MSH-induced melanin synthesis of 2D cultured B16 cells. (A) 10 nM of α-MSH treatment for 72 hours induced noticeable melanogenesis in both cell lines. Typical dendritic morphology and dark pigmentation were observed. Scale bar = 200 μm. The amount of (B) intracellular and (C) extracellular melanin showed a dose-dependent response in both cell lines. (D) The proliferation of B16 cells was inhibited by α-MSH treatment. The significant difference was analyzed by t-test (*p < 0.05).

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While the level of extracellular melanin in control melanocytes without α-MSH treatment was negligible, the amount of measured intracellular melanin was substantial (several picograms per cell). This raised the question of whether the determined value originated from the intracellular melanin or from other cellular substances in the lysate: when we measure the absorbance from a pellet, we measure the whole lysate, which contains diverse cellular matter including proteins and lipids. The turbidity from those components may contribute to the absorbance, and therefore the melanin amount can be overestimated. To answer this question, we measured the absorbance of cell lysate from a few different cell lines that do not produce melanin. Most of the tested cells showed a similar or lower level of absorbance to unpigmented B16F10 and B16F1 cells (Fig.S2, Supplemental Information), but one tested line (MCF7) showed a considerable level of absorbance. We suppose that such high absorbance of MCF7 mainly resulted from other cellular matter, because the absorbance decreased significantly after centrifugation, unlike the case of B16 cells. When we measure relative parameters such as EC50, the background absorbance by cellular substances can be ignored. However, the level of background absorbance should be considered when the absolute quantification of melanin is being sought. This phenomenon can be overcome by using a real sample-like standard curve, for example a melanin spike-in to a cell lysate. We also note that, for a better quantification, one should consider using natural melanin to prepare a standard curve because calibration with synthetic melanin may cause a systematic bias in measuring natural melanin in culture.

3D melanocyte culture and non-invasive measurement of melanin

In our study, we made an aggregate of B16 cells by the hanging-drop method as described in Fig.2. The process of aggregate formation and growth was recorded by time-lapse live imaging (Fig.3A, and Supplemental Video). Initially, B16F10 cells were scattered in the hanging drop before gradually moving to the lower side of the drop due to gravity. Adhesion among cells progressed to form an aggregate in about 12 hours, after which it grew continuously. Most of the cells in the aggregate were live at 72 hours in culture (Fig.3B). Interestingly, when we transferred the aggregates to a Petri dish for a prolonged culture in suspension, the culture medium appeared dark brown in color after a few days even without the presence of α-MSH, an observation also reported in other literature33. Since the addition of α-MSH can affect the cellular status (e.g. proliferation inhibition), such spontaneous melanin production by cellular aggregation formation is a very attractive characteristic.

Schematic overview of the developed method for a non-invasive measurement of extracellular melanin from 3D-cultured melanocytes. (Step 1) Melanocytes are allowed to form an aggregate in a hanging drop for 72 hours. (Step 2) The aggregates are transferred to a ULA flat-bottom 96-well plate with or without the addition of depigmenting agents. (Step 3) The melanin present in cell culture medium is monitored by measuring the absorbance at 490 nm for 4 days.

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3D culture of melanocytes and their spontaneous melanin production. (A) B16F10 cells formed a single aggregate in a hanging-drop and a ULA round-bottom plate, but they formed a few small aggregates in a flat-bottom plate. (B) Live/dead staining of a B16F10 aggregate demonstrates that most of the cells are live after 72 hours of culture in a hanging drop. (C) Melanocyte aggregates in a 3D culture produced melanin without the addition of melanin-synthesizing hormones. (D) A pellet of melanocyte aggregate demonstrated the increase of melanin production by time.

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For high-throughput screening, a 96-well format is preferred over conventional dish or flask cultures. First, cells grown in 3D can easily achieve a high cell density. Also, the level of extracellular melanin in 3D-cultured cells was high enough to be detected with the naked eye, meaning that we can measure the extracellular melanin without destroying cells. Therefore, 3D melanocyte culture in a 96-well plate format opens up the possibility of non-invasive high-throughput measurement of melanin. With this culture, we systematically investigated melanocyte aggregate formation and quantitatively measured melanin production.

First, we tested different initial cell numbers for the aggregate formation. B16F10 cells of all tested initial cell numbers (500, 1,000 and 2,000) successfully formed aggregates (Fig.S3(A), Supplemental Information). While melanocytes of higher initial cell number generated a larger aggregate and produced higher levels of melanin, the media in the drop acidified faster concurrently. Thus, we decided to use 1,000 cells initially. The melanocyte aggregate grew as a sheet several hundreds of microns thick, rather than as a spherical compact where the supply of oxygen and nutrition is limited. Therefore, the size of B16 aggregates continuously increased over time without noticeable retardation until 6 days (Fig.S3(B), Supplemental Information). After 72 hours, the average diameter of the aggregate was about 681 ± 28 μm in the case of B16F10 cells. B16F1 cells showed similar behavior in the process of cellular aggregation, but the growth rate was slower than that of B16F10 cells, as similarly observed in 2D culture (data not shown).

Although the hanging-drop method is an efficient and inexpensive way to produce a cellular aggregate, it has a few limitations. A long-term culture is not feasible because of the small volume of the drop, which is usually 20 to 30 μL. The drop is also prone to evaporation and pH change, and washing or treating reagents cells in the drop is not straightforward. Therefore, we transferred the aggregate to an ultra-low attachment (ULA) flat-bottom 96-well plate after 72 hours and continued the culture for an additional 96 hours. A larger culture volume (200–250 μL) accommodates an extended culture time, and the well-plate format provides the potential for high-throughput screening. In tests using ULA plates from the beginning (Fig.3A), in the case of a flat-bottom plate, a few small aggregates of different sizes were generated, which were not applicable to our assay. A round-bottom plate was suitable for generating an aggregate of uniform size, however the shape of the plate bottom caused a few problems elsewhere. The center-location of the aggregate hindered measurement of extracellular melanin, and the poor optical transparency was inappropriate for reproducible absorbance measurements. Therefore, the combination of the hanging-drop method with suspension culture in a ULA flat-bottom plate can be the most efficient way to cultivate melanocytes in 3D and to measure the melanin continuously over the course of the culture.

Next, we explored the synthesis and secretion of melanin by melanocyte aggregates. The extracellular melanin was measured at 24-hour intervals (Fig.3C). As measuring the cell number and culture volume of each 3D aggregate was infeasible, we used a distinct scale for 3D aggregate melanin production (µg/well). Although color change in the culture media was not noticeable until 48 hours post transfer (PT) to the ULA 96-well plate, the amount of melanin per well continued to increase over time. The color of the pellet also darkened over time, indicating active melanin synthesis (Fig.3D). The amount of extracellular melanin also increased over time to reach 2.26 and 1.37 μg per well from B16F10 and B16F1 cells, respectively, at 96 hours PT. The variation in measurement values between technical quadruplicates was relatively small, with a relative standard deviation lower than 15%.

We then investigated whether the addition of α-MSH further induces melanogenesis in melanocytes. The amount of extracellular melanin significantly increased in a dose-dependent manner from 48 hours PT (Fig.S4, Supplemental Information). At 96 hours PT, the extracellular melanin from 1 nM α-MSH-treated B16F10 cells was about nine times higher than that of untreated cells. In the case of B16F1 cells, the enhancement was much more prominent, as we also observed in 2D culture. Although α-MSH can further induce melanin production, the aggregates from both B16F10 and B16F1 cells produced enough melanin to be detected without the stimulation. The culture time required to accumulate enough melanin to be measurable was similar with and without treatment. Most of all, α-MSH was found to inhibit the proliferation of melanocytes even at a low concentration in our 2D study. Therefore, the depigmenting study described below was conducted without the α-MSH treatment.

Measurement of depigmenting effects in 3D culture with non-invasive absorption spectroscopy

Depigmenting agents are largely categorized into (1) substances involved in controlling the melanin synthesis process (e.g. controlling the amount or activity of tyrosinase), (2) substances that interfere with the transfer or dispersion of the melanosome, which is a melanin-containing organelle, and (3) substances that promote the turnover of skin cells34,35. Here, we tested three well-known depigmenting agents: arbutin, kojic acid, and niacinamide36. Arbutin is a β-D-glucopyranoside of hydroquinone, which serves as a competitive inhibitor for tyrosinase, a key enzyme in the melanogenesis pathway which inhibits the maturation of melanosomes. Kojic acid (5-hydroxy-2-hydroxymethyl-4H-pyran-4-one) is a copper chelator and one of the most intensively studied tyrosinase inhibitors. Niacinamide (vitamin B3, nicotinamide, 3-pyridinecarboxamide) is a biologically active form of niacin which interferes with melanosome transfer from melanocytes to keratinocytes.

Based on published depigmenting studies that employed depigmenting agents in a 100 to 1,000 μM range5,37,38,39, we chose a 500 μM concentration to demonstrate the developed assay, a concentration range known to be not cytotoxic40. Depigmenting agents were added at the time of transfer of melanocyte aggregate to the 96-well plate. We monitored the morphology of cellular aggregates (Fig.S5, Supplemental Information) and the level of extracellular melanin (Fig.4). There were no significant differences in size and morphology of aggregates following treatment of depigmenting agents, and both cell lines showed a similar trend in depigmentation. The depigmenting effect of arbutin and kojic acid appeared from 72 hours PT, and became more evident at 96 hours PT, with kojic acid displaying a more pronounced effect of depigmentation. For an easier comparison between samples, we defined a depigmenting index (DI) as the percentage of decreased melanin in treated samples to an untreated control, as described in the equation below, with data summarized in Table1.

$${\rm{Depigmenting}}\,{\rm{index}}\,({\rm{DI}},\, \% )=\frac{Melani{n}_{untreated}-Melani{n}_{treated}}{Melani{n}_{treated}}\times 100$$

Depigmenting effects of arbutin, kojic acid, and niacinamide on melanocytes in a 3D culture. Time-course change of extracellular melanin production in (A) B16F10 and (B) B16F1 cells. The significant difference was analyzed by t-test (*p < 0.05).

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Full size table

DI was slightly higher in B16F10 cells in general. Kojic acid was the most effective depigmenting agent among tested substances at a concentration of 500 μM, a result consistent with a previous study where kojic acid was more effective than arbutin at a concentration of 500 μM38. Niacinamide did not display any depigmenting effect: since niacinamide is involved in the transfer of melanosomes to keratinocytes, it is known that it does not exhibit a depigmenting effect in an environment in which melanocytes are cultured alone31. Interestingly, niacinamide rather significantly increased the level of extracellular melanin after 72 hours PT.

We measured the extracellular melanin from a spheroid lysate at the end of the culture to compare the developed method to the conventional one (Fig.S6, Supplemental Information). The result was similar in that both arbutin and kojic acid displayed a depigmenting effect while niacinamide did not. However, in conventional melanin measurement, arbutin appeared to be more effective than kojic acid, and niacinamide did not enhance the intracellular melanin production at all. Explaining this discrepancy is out of our current scope, but we suggest that the potential differences between the intra- and extracellular melanin measurements should be considered.

Lastly, we investigated the melanin production of B16 cell aggregates when they were treated with 10 to 2,000 μM of each depigmenting agent. While arbutin did not show a dose-dependent response in the extracellular melanin, kojic acid and niacinamide did, albeit in a very different direction from 72 hours PT (Figs5 and S7, Supplemental Information). Kojic acid showed a typical sigmoidal dose-dependent response, and the EC50 for B16F10 cells was calculated to be 115.8 ± 8.0 μM. Niacinamide did not affect melanin production in the range of 10 to 200 μM, however concentrations higher than 500 μM induced a high level of melanin production in a dose-dependent manner. The size and morphology of the B16 aggregates did not change up to 500 µM of each depigmenting agent (Fig.S8, Supplemental Information). However, at concentrations higher than 1,000 µM, the B16 aggregates were considerably smaller in size and more compact in morphology. Therefore, a concentration lower than 500 µM is recommended for the tested depigmenting agents in 3D cultured B16 cells.

Dose-response of tested depigmenting agents in B16F10 aggregates at 96 hours PT. (A) The amount of extracellular melanin did not significantly change with different concentrations of arbutin. (B) Kojic acid showed a typical dose-dependent depigmentation. (C) Niacinamide concentrations higher than 500 μM significantly induced melanin production.

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In summary, we developed a non-invasive melanin quantification method based on a 3D culture of B16F10 and B16F1 cells, which can be potentially used for a high-throughput screening of depigmenting agents. The method combined a 3D melanocyte aggregation from a hanging-drop array with a suspension culture in a ULA 96-well plate. B16 melanocytes restored their melanin production ability by simply forming an aggregate without the addition of stimulant. We could measure the depigmenting effect of a few depigmenting agents non-invasively using a single melanocyte aggregate. As a result, the melanocyte aggregate can be used as an alternative to the artificial skin model, and fill the gap between the experimental stages of 2D and animal models. We envision that the developed platform can be employed to enable a high-throughput screening of substances involved in the melanin synthesis process of melanocytes.

Quantitative analysis of melanin content in a three-dimensional melanoma cell culture (2024)

FAQs

How do you quantify melanin? ›

Melanin content per cell can be calculated by dividing the amount of melanin by the number of melanin containing cells (ng per cell). Melanin content per culture can be calculated by multiplying melanin per cell by the total number of cells in the flask (ng per well).

How do you measure melanin in cells? ›

Melanin content of cultured pigmented cells can be measured by spectrophotometry and expressed either as melanin content per cell or melanin content per culture (area).

What is melanin in melanoma? ›

Melanoma is an extremely aggressive form of skin cancer that can spread to the lungs, brain, and liver, among other vital organs. Melanoma cells, unlike any other cancer cells, can produce significant amounts of melanin by a process known as melanogenesis, causing them to become heavily pigmented.

How to know the amount of melanin in skin? ›

WHY AND HOW TO MEASURE MELANIN ON SKIN? Melanin can be measured by spectrophotometry—a standard and cost-effective technique for measuring melanin using a light beam. This technology calculates melanin by measuring light absorption and reflection. First, a probe is placed on a sample and emits three light wavelengths.

What two factors determine how much melanin is produced? ›

Natural melanin levels are primarily decided by genetics and generally determine one's hair, skin, and eye color. However, there are some other factors that can influence the production of melanin, such as: exposure to UV light. inflammation.

How much is a gram of melanin? ›

There is no such thing as "melanin injections." Melanin in the skin has nothing to do with the pineal gland. Melanin is not being sold on the stock market. Despite all that, today, melanin is worth over $445 a gram.

What three things does melanin determine? ›

Melanin is a substance in your body that produces hair, eye and skin pigmentation. The more melanin you produce, the darker your eyes, hair and skin will be.

What device measures melanin? ›

The Mexameter® MX 18 is a very easy, quick and economical tool to measure the two components, mainly responsible for the colour of the skin: melanin and haemoglobin (erythema) by reflectance.

What is the absorbance of melanin? ›

The photoprotective properties of human epidermal melanin in skin have been well documented (Kollias et al, 1991). It absorbs both ultraviolet (UV) and visible light. The absorption increases linearly in the range of 720 to 620 nm and then exponentially toward shorter wavelengths (300–600 nm).

Can people with melanin get melanoma? ›

Understanding the risks

Black people are far less likely to develop melanoma than non-Hispanic White people (at a rate of 1 per 100,000 compared to 30 per 100,000) due to the protection that melanin, the body's natural skin pigment, provides from damaging ultraviolet rays.

How does higher levels of melanin protect someone from melanoma? ›

The shielding effect of melanin, especially eumelanin, is achieved by its ability to serve as a physical barrier that scatters UVR, and as an absorbent filter that reduces the penetration of UV through the epidermis (68).

How dark is melanoma? ›

Melanoma often contains shades of brown, black, or tan, but some can be red or pink, such as the one shown here.

How is melanin quantified? ›

Currently, the gold standard method for melanin quantification in skin is high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) chemical analysis of melanin degradation products7,8. Although very specific, it requires ex vivo samples degradation and provides no information on melanin's epidermal distribution.

Do white skin have melanin? ›

Special cells called melanocytes make melanin. Everyone has the same number of melanocytes, but some people make more melanin than others. If these cells make just a little melanin, your hair, skin, and eyes can be very light. If your cells make more, then your hair, skin, and eyes will be darker.

What stimulates melanin production? ›

Ultraviolet Radiation as a Regulator of Melanogenesis

This is the main stimulus for melanin production, leading to induced pigmentation of the skin, or 'tanning'.

How do you quantify skin color? ›

Tele-spectroradiometers (TSRs) and spectrophotometers (SPs) are two types of instruments that are most widely used for measuring skin colour. For example, TSRs are used for measuring colour appearance such as in cosmetic industry for developing skin colour charts and evaluating skin products [2].

Is skin color determined by the amount of melanin? ›

Melanin is a substance in your body that produces hair, eye and skin pigmentation. The more melanin you produce, the darker your eyes, hair and skin will be. The amount of melanin in your body depends on a few different factors, including genetics and how much sun exposure your ancestral population had.

How is melanin expressed? ›

The process of melanin synthesis and distribution is called melanogenesis, a process that is based on melanocytes present among the basal cells of the epidermis. Pigments formed in melanocyte melanosomes are then stored in the basal layer of epidermal cells, as well as in dermal macrophages, which become melanophores.

What are melanin units? ›

The epidermal melanin unit is composed of one melanocyte for 36 surrounding keratinocytes. The Langerhans cells also have a very constant morphological relationship to surrounding keratinocytes. Using volumetric techniques, it has been documented that there is one Langerhans cell for 53 surrounding keratinocytes [39].

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